Posts tagged 'CSS/HTML'

Unmatched Style’s CSS Off Was Slimey Fun hosted a CSS competition for front-end devs to strut their stuff among their peers. Everyone got the same design and it was up the entrant to come up with the most efficient, pixel-perfect, bleeding-edge, fully functioning interpretation. The deceptively simple looking design was lovingly crafted by the rowdy folks of Paravel and sent out two weeks ago. Entries were due at 5pm today. Here’s the low down on my submission.

First, you should probably play around with my finished design and compare it with the static mockup (linked above). Go check it out… I’ll wait. Did you drag the corner of the browser to check how it responds to different browser sizes? Of course you did you CSS nerd.

  •  Somehow I messed up the colors of the design. My layout has really bright colors while the original design uses more muted colors. I have no idea how this happened.
  • The logo is a background image attached to the element of the section. I was inspired by
  • I forgot to add the blue faded slime splat in the header. I kind of screwed myself by using the <head> and <header> elements in the same section though I could have attached it to the <HTML> element. Oh well.
  • Instead of PNGs I used GIFs in some places due to the smaller file size (thanks to increasing the Lossy section in Photoshop’s Save For Web dialog)
  • Navigation links are at the bottom of the page with position:fixed (sticks to the top of the viewport) set for larger screens and an anchor link to the bottom of the page for smaller screens.
  • The obstacles section is built with two sprites using the same background-position offsets. I wanted to just use one sprite for the larger images and use background-size to scale them down for the thumbnails. Performance took a big hit so I simplified.
  • The larger obstacle images are within a
    element with overflow:hidden applied. The thumbnails link to the IDs of the larger version so no JavaScript is required to show/hide them.
  • The labels for the prizes that appear on hover are pulled from the title attribute of the link dynamically using CSS.
  • The form uses required and pattern attributes for validation without any JavaScript. If I had more time I would add a validation script as a fallback.
  • When the countdown reaches zero I “slime” the user using a number of slime splat images already loaded in the design.
  • The two addresses to the studios are marked up with a vCard microformat so machines can easily parse that information.
  • I did not use the <address> element for the studio addresses because that is not what it is for.
  • The custom <select> drop down styles are images with the invisible <select>’s laid overtop. They’re not useable for sighted keyboard users. This is probably my least favorite part of my design.
  • I focused much of my time on making the design accessible and didn’t even bother checking what it looks like in browsers outside of Firefox 7, Chrome 15, and Safari 5 (all Mac versions). I just didn’t have enough time.
  • This layout is sluggish on my Nexus One most likely due to the way I added the semi-transparent grainy texture.
  • I added some ASCII art as an HTML comment at the bottom of the page. I like adding little easter eggs like that.
  • Finding the right element to make a favicon image from was tricky. I settled on the KN from the Knucklelodeon logo because it looked the best at 16×16.
  • You can pin the site to your desktop if you’re using IE9 and Windows 7 since I added a fewelements. Of course I forgot to add the more basic description, keyword and other general elements.
  • Selecting text uses the same colors as the hove styles, yellow background with reddish-orange text and no text shadow.
  • My custom JavaScript code is in a single block at the bottom of the page and not in a separate file. Since it is a single-page site, there is no benefit to externally linking it.

This was also my first responsive design. I started out making the large 1024px version first and then going back to make smaller versions. Big mistake. It’s a lot easier to start with mobile first and then build your design up, larger and larger. Media queries are also a pain in the butt since it requires a ton of going back and forth from the top of the stylesheet to the bottom where the media query styles were. When I changed styles for one target size, I had to double-check that those changes didn’t (or did) cascade into the larger sizes. This also resulted in a lot of duplicate selectors. What would be ideal is to set-up different classes on the HTML element with a class for different resolutions. This would be similar to how we handle conditional styles for Internet Explorer. This way we could group similar styles in the same area which makes it easier to keep track of changes.

Sites I Referenced

Other Noteworthy Entries

So what do people do once the contest comes to an end? Share their work on Twitter for others to comment on of course!  Here are some of the other entries I found searching Twitter for #cssoff.

Finally if you want to show off your entry, @daljo628 is hosting them at Ping him to have yours added.

Phew! I’m glad I’m not in the judge’s shoes now. Having to go through all the entries and ultimately pick a winner; That’s a tough call.

Update: The top 25 entries have been announced!

5 Links Of Interestingness – “0to255 cures your color manipulation woes. Simply pick the color that you want to start with and 0to255 gives you a range of colors from black to white using an interval optimized for web design. Then, just click the variation you want to use and the hex code is automatically copied to your clipboard.” My favorite part is that it uses a RESTful API so you can do things like You know I just love things that you can manipulate with a url. – A tool for quickly mocking up snippets of HTML/CSS. I would prefer to just create a new HTML file in Dreamweaver and play with it using Firebug, but this could work too. I found the cursor in the HTML/CSS box to be a little off when hitting return. CSSdesk has a nice interface which is almost like a desktop application. And since you can download it and run it locally, I guess it qualifies as a genuine application.

Please Do Not Change Your Password – Alot of security’s best practices cause more problems than they solve. “At countless conferences and seminars, experts have consistently called for more education and outreach as the answer to user apathy or ignorance. But the research of Herley and others is causing many to realize most of the blame for noncompliance rests not with users, but with the experts themselves — the pros aren’t able to make a strong case for all their recommendations.”

Holistic Web Browsing: Trends Of The Future – “The future of the Web is not at your desk. It’s not necessarily in your pocket, either. It’s everywhere.” How do we design for a Web that was only intended to be used in a single context?

WTF? (Video) – “This clip comes from Hard Ticket to Hawaii, possibly the worst 1980’s movie made (though to be fair, it’s tagline of Bombs, Babes, and Beaches is quite… radical).” At first I thought the acting was WTF, then I saw the ending.

“How many SEO copywriters does it take to change a lightbulb, light bulb, light, bulb, lamp, bulbs, flowers, flour…?”Chris Rowe

Put Your Print Stylesheet At The Bottom

I woke up this morning with a profound realization. “Why not put print stylesheets at the bottom of the page so they load last?”, I thought to myself. It makes perfect sense to any performance-conscious web developer who savors every last millisecond of performance gained. Your print styles aren’t needed until you print the page, so it is okay if it takes a little while longer to download.  Unfortunately the quirkiness of the browser makers trumps our otherwise sound logic.

According to tests done by Steve Souders, web performance guru extraordinaire, Internet Explorer blocks the rendering of content until all of the stylesheets have been downloaded regardless of their media type. And since Internet Explorer is the dominant browser by visitors to most mainstream sites, there is absolutely no benefit to including the print stylesheet at the bottom of the page.

A possible workaround would be to dynamically insert the print stylesheet (using JavaScript) into the web page after it has finished loading. This just feels icky to me as the poor sap who is most likely to print out the webpage I so meticulously coded is also the poor sap using Internet Explorer 5.5 with JavaScript turned off and BonziBUDDY turned on.

Death To The Div

Every web developer is looking forward to the new HTML spec, HTML 5. The new spec will birth 20 new elements to add more underlying semantic meaning to content. The new elements came out of popular IDs and Class attributes for common situations in web design: <nav> is just like <div id=”nav”>. But these new elements are just a stop gap.

Death to the Div Tag

I wish the web community could move beyond pigeon-holing ourselves with specific elements. Why can’t we make our own elements to better describe our content? If I had my way <div>s would be ancient history and any element not already defined in the HTML spec would be treated by browsers like a <div>.

There are many benefits to opening up the element nomenclature like this.

1) It will be much easier to describe content. No longer will we need to shoehorn our content into quasi-relevant elements. Did you know the <address> tag is to define the contact information for the author or owner of a document and not to hold a plain street address?

2) No more div-itis. Web developers will no longer have to wade through a dozen </div> tags. <div> tags are the least-semantic structural elements in a web designers toolbox; it literally means ‘division’ of a page and is used to mark off different sections within a document. Things can get pretty messy when using too many <div>s however as it is hard to tell where they end. Take a look at this code example:

<div id="container">
   <div id="article">
     <div id="chart">

Look how much better this markup looks from both a readability and maintainability perspective:


A benefit to free-form elements is the semantic closing tags making it clear where each element begins and ends.

3) Microformats might actually work. The movement to create semantic markup using loosely agreed upon Classes slowly died off due to the extra bloat it introduced to the underlying code. With the ability to create your own tags, Microformats could flourish and we can begin to set-up our own best practices for describing content.

4) Faster JavaScript. Not many browsers support the JavaScript method getElementsByClassName but every browser supports getElementsByTagName. Because of this many libraries have had to write their own implementations which are many times slower than native methods. Faster DOM traversal = faster JavaScript!

What will it take to make this a reality? Boogers

We’re already going to have issues with older browsers supporting brand new elements with HTML 5. We might as well go all the way and make sure every browser can support whatever element we can come up with. After all we only have one shot to get HTML right for this generation according to John Allsopp.

Many browsers already support free-form elements both with CSS and JavaScript. To really flesh this out I created the Booger Test and below are my findings.

  • Firefox 3+ supports the <booger> tag as if it were a native element but has to be explicitly set to display:block.
  • Firefox 2 has no problem with CSS unless there children elements in which case the <booger> tag collapses. Weird!
  • All versions of Internet Explorer don’t know what to do with the <booger> tag but they do function normally when using a JavaScript shiv
  • Safari and Chrome have no problems.
  • Every browser I tested passed the JavaScript portions (getElementsByTagName(“booger”)) of the booger test with flying colors!

So as you can see, we are really close to being able to use our own elements. HTML 5 is already going in this direction but it would be a real shame if everyone got hung up on what frivolous new element names we should all agree to use instead of coming up with new functionality to move the capabilities of the web forward.

Developers: Stop Whining About IE6


I’m sick of the developer community whining and moaning about IE6. It’s amazing how many different campaigns have been created in an attempt to get people to upgrade. From the simple brochure sites like to the unethical IE6 update script which tricks a user into thinking an IE upgrade is a critical update. There was even a CNN story about the anti-IE campaign on the front page (which I think they ran mostly because they stood to benefit from people upgrading). And lets not forget the jovial tweets when news broke that YouTube would be dropping support for IE6.

The only major site that has a valid plan for leaving IE6 behind is which was a business decision. According to their stats, IE6 accounts for 10% of visits and 5% of all pageviews. The biggest IE6 headaches for Digg is supporting the functionality to digg a story, bury a story, or leave a comment. IE6 only accounts for a mere 1% of these actions which Digg can’t justify the extra development time needed to support them for such a small group of users. They even conducted a survey to find out why people don’t upgrade their browsers with a majority of the respondents stating they aren’t allowed or they don’t have the proper rights to install new software on their computers.

Digg IE6 Survey chart

All of this hoopla so the lives of developers are easier. After all it is the job of developers to build a site and make sure it works across a variety of operating systems, browsers, and devices in order to serve its audience. Martin Ringlein put it best in his post Stop being a dick, support IE6, “We are in the business of creating usable, accessible and intuitive experiences for our users; we are not in the business of changing users, user agents and user behavior all in a pursuit for what we’ve deemed a ‘better’ web.”

I became a developer because I enjoyed solving problems. Internet Explorer is just another obstacle to get over when solving a problem. Rather than wasting energy on things I couldn’t control like trying to persuade the public to upgrade, I dove into learning how to get past the quirks of IE. Here are my 5 tips:

  1. Start with a reset stylesheet – This removes any default styles set by the browser so you can start styling on a consistent base. I prefer Eric Myer’s CSS Reset Reloaded , but there are many to choose from.
  2. Use a strict HTML doctypeDoctypes tell the browser how to interpret the HTML and transitional and loose doctypes introduce rendering quirks known as triggering “quirksmode“. Any XML doctype (including XHTML flavors) triggers quirks mode in IE as well.
  3. Don’t be afraid of CSS conditional hacks – Did you know you can send IE a different property by putting an underscore in front of it? It works like this:
    .style {
    margin-left:15px; //Caught by every browser
    _margin-left:10px; //Caught by IE 6 & 7
    .margin-left:8px; //Only caught by IE6

    You can also use conditional stylesheets to serve different stylesheets but that becomes difficult to maintain.

  4. Learn to love the AlphaImageLoader filter for transparent PNGs – There is no way around it.
  5. Learn to clear floats the simple way – Just set the “overflow” property of the container to auto or hidden and set the width or height to something other than auto. This applies to all browsers not just IE. I hate seeing the overly complicated clearfix solution.

Other tips for taming IE quirks:

So if studying up on these workarounds and techniques sound like too much work, then maybe you shouldn’t be a developer. Perhaps a professional lobbyist is right up your alley. They’re pretty good at ignoring the details of reality.

Here’s a list of some of the more prominent anti-IE6 sites:

And David DeSandro agrees with my attitude towards IE6.

Pure CSS Shapes: Triangles, Delicious Logo, and Hearts

After reading through Smashing Magazine’s latest article, 50 New CSS Techniques For Your Next Web Design, I came across an article glossing over a technique for creating a triangle using pure CSS. A triangle using just CSS? That blew my mind! How is that even possible?

After playing around with the sample CSS I started to get it. Using an empty HTML element and the border properties, you can make all kinds of shapes. Here is how it works.

Note: As expected, Internet Explorer acts a bit wonky especially IE6. These experiments were done in Firefox 3.5 but you can see what they should look like in a screenshot I took.

Per the box model, the border outlines the perimeter of an element. When an element has a width and height of 0px the border-width’s make up the dimensions of the element.The corners of borders meet at a 45° angle which is apparent with larger border widths and what makes pure CSS shapes possible. The final CSS to make a 200 pixel tall red triangle pointing up looks like this:

But let’s see how we got to this conclusion step by step starting with a basic square and borders. Each border will be given a different color so we can tell them apart.

.triangle {
border-color: yellow blue red green;
border-style: solid;
border-width: 200px 200px 200px 200px;
height: 0px;
width: 0px;

We won’t need the top border so we can set its width to 0px. This makes our triangle easy to measure without any extra space on top; a border-bottom value of 200px will result in a triangle that is 200px tall.

.triangle {
border-color: yellow blue red green;
border-style: solid;
border-width: 0px 200px 200px 200px;
height: 0px;
width: 0px;

To hide the two side triangles we set the border-color to transparent. If we set the border-left and border-right widths to 0px then the whole shape would collapse, leaving us with nothing. Since the top-border has been effectively deleted, we can set the border-top-color to transparent as well.

 .triangle {
border-color: transparent transparent red transparent;
border-style: solid;
border-width: 0px 200px 200px 200px;
height: 0px;
width: 0px;

There you have it; a triangle using only a single, empty HTML element and some CSS. The same technique can be applied to the other three sides for different orientations. Where might this come in handy? A JavaScript toggle to indicate a container is visible comes to mind. And using a pure CSS triangle is a lot more convenient than coming up with new images for each variation.

Try playing around with different widths to create different kinds of triangles. You can also get some funky effects by changing the border-style; dotted produces a neat effect on our regular bordered square.

.funkyShape {
border-color: yellow blue red green;
border-style: dotted;
border-width: 200px 200px 200px 200px;
height: 0px;
width: 0px;

I even managed to come up with the logo.

.delicious {
border-color:#FFFFFF #3274D0 #D3D2D2 #000000;

And a heart shape.

.heart {
border-width:0 150px 150px 0;

I wasn’t the first one to explore CSS shapes, it turns out Tantek Çelik was playing around with these ideas way back in 2001.

target=”_blank” vs. target=”_new”

Bullseye Target for Archery Practice

The target attribute of a link forces the browser to open the destination page in a new browser window. Using _blank as a target value will spawn a new window every time while using _new will only spawn one new window and every link clicked with a target value of _new will replace the page loaded in the previously spawned window. Try it out for yourself:

Links with target=”_blank”

Google | Yahoo | Bing

Links with target=”_new”

Google | Yahoo | Bing

target=”_new” is not a standard target value. You could use any term you like and any link that has the same target value will open in a previously spawned window. See the target=”booger” example below.

Links with target=”booger”

Google | Yahoo | Bing

How can I force a link to open in a new tab instead of a new window?

There is currently no way to force a window to open in a new tab for browsers with this feature. This functionality can only be set in the preferences of the browser (see other resources section below).

What if I want the new window to display at a certain size?

The only way to do this is by using JavaScript. I recommend the method outlined at

Other Rescources

Of course all of this is moot since opening pages in new windows is a usability annoyance.

Does The IMG Tag Need A Fullsize Attribute?

Drew Wilson is proposing the HTML IMG tag get a new attribute called fullsize. The fullsize attribute would reference “a larger (or fullsize) version of the SRC image. Browsers could then include native support to display the fullsize image in a [modal] pop-up.” according to, Wilson’s site dedicated to the effort. Mr. Wilson has even gone to the trouble of creating a jQuery plug-in that simulates how the behavior would work. He hopes the Internet will make enough buzz about it to get the attention of the W3C in order to get the fullsize attribute included in the official HTML spec. As of this writing, the petition to add a fullsize attribute has 185 “signatures”. I am not one of them.

Drew Wilson is proposing the W3C add a new attribute to the IMG tag called fullsize.

I’m not against the idea of including a reference to a larger version of an image right inside the tag. HTML is all about structuring and describing content, and the fullsize attribute is just another piece of meta-data. My biggest problem is this is already possible today by wrapping a link pointing to the fullsize image around the original image. Is it sexy? No. But it is still flexible. It can be customized and jazzed up with JavaScript and CSS but for devices that don’t support those technologies, a link around an image would still be accessible.

What I’m weary wary about is letting the browser manufacturers determine the default pop-up behavior and then relying on them for easier customization options. Take drop down input elements for example. Getting these to look consistent across all of the different browsers and operating systems in the world today is impossible. Roger Johansson went through the effort and documented them on his blog Any saved time from browsers handling a pop-up would be wasted trying to work around the different limitations for each browser.

To summarize:

  • I’m all for a fullsize attribute for meta-data purposes
  • Browsers handling the pop-up functionality will do more harm than good From Comp To Code In 12 Hours

Kristina had been toying with the idea of her own website for a couple weeks now. However, this past weekend, she got around to comping one together. She has been fascinated with the eclectic desk style that seems popular these days. While she was busy in Photoshop, I was setting up the domain and basic file structure. Since it’s a small site, the preparation didn’t take long. In fact the most time consuming task involved cutting images up from the comp and organizing them. Coding was a snap. The site is a basic 3 column layout and most everything is an image. Screenshot

Creating the carousel to page through her resume was a custom job that took me about 20 minutes using jQuery. I had hoped to just go out to the jQuery community and find a nifty carousel plugin that I could just drop in and be on my way. Unfortunately this wasn’t the case. While there were plenty of options out there, everything was over engineered and too rigid. Most require the content to be an unordered list but I was using a set of divs. This shouldn’t make a lick of difference as any jQuery selector could be used.

Carousel scripts are pretty basic. You need a set of items to rotate through, a container to hold the items, and a frame to mask off the ugly parts. Some basic styling is used to line the items up in a row. The container is given a postion of absolute so it can be freely moved left and right and a large width to hold all of the items inside. The frame needs the overflow property set to hidden to mask out the items that we don’t want the user to see. To pull off the animation we use jQuery’s handy animate() method for the left and right positioning of the container element. This lets us set a key point and jQuery will handle the interpolation from the current value to the key point. Attach this function to a next and previous button and you’re ready to go with your own custom carousel that works the way you want it to.

How A Carousel Works

It was a lot of fun to create a brand new site from scratch without any legacy content or rigid CMS. Simple websites are fun! And if you haven’t checked out the fruits of both of our labors, then please immediately proceed to

IE Gets A CSS Rule Right

Web developers like to rag on Microsoft’s Internet Explorer every chance they get due it’s sub-par support for HTML/CSS standards. But one thing Microsoft did get right was support for background-position-x and background-position-y. The background-position property lets you control the placement of the background image of an element. Background-position-x and background-position-y let you control the placement independently.

What are some practical uses of controlling the background position independently? Take a card game, for example. Instead of assigning a separate background image for each card you could make a single image that has all the cards in a grid (see below). To show every card you would only need 18 classes: 1 for the common card styles, 4 for the background position of each suit, and 13 for the background position of each value (Ace, two, three etc.)

The CSS for the image above would look like this…

.card {
/* Suites */
.clubs { background-position-y:0%; }
.diamonds { background-position-y:25%; }
.hearts { background-position-y:50%; }
.spades { background-position-y:75%; }
/* Values */
.ace { background-position-x:0%; }
.two { background-position-x:7.5%; }
.three { background-position-x:7.5%; }
.four { background-position-x:7.5%; }
.five { background-position-x:7.5%; }
/* etc. */

The HTML would be simple, elegant, and look like this:

<a class="card hearts five">Five of Hearts</a>
<a class="card spade jack">Jack of Spades</a>

Alas if only life were that simple. Currently only IE 5.0+ and Safari 1.2+ support background-position-x and background-position-y. Every other browser ignores the properties, defaulting to the upper left position.

Instead this is how the CSS code would look if you were writing it for support with all browsers…

/* clubs */ 
.ace-clubs { background-position:0% 0%; }
.two-clubs { background-position:7.5% 0%; }
.three-clubs { background-position:15% 0%; }
.four-clubs { background-position:22.5% 0%; }
.five-clubs { background-position:30% 0%; }
.six-clubs { background-position:37.5% 0%; }
.seven-clubs { background-position:45% 0%; }
.eight-clubs { background-position:52.5% 0%; }
.nine-clubs { background-position:60% 0%; }
.ten-clubs { background-position:67.5% 0%; }
.jack-clubs { background-position:75% 0%; }
.queen-clubs { background-position:82.5% 0%; }
.king-clubs { background-position:90% 0%; }
/* spades */ 
.ace-spades { background-position:0% 25%; }
.two-spades { background-position:7.5% 25%; }
.three-spades { background-position:15% 25%; }
.four-spades { background-position:22.5% 25%; }
.five-spades { background-position:30% 25%; }
.six-spades { background-position:37.5% 25%; }
.seven-spades { background-position:45% 25%; }
.eight-spades { background-position:52.5% 25%; }
.nine-spades { background-position:60% 25%; }
.ten-spades { background-position:67.5% 25%; }
.jack-spades { background-position:75% 25%; }
.queen-spades { background-position:82.5% 25%; }
.king-spades { background-position:90% 25%; }
/* hearts */ 
.ace-hearts { background-position:0% 50%; }
.two-hearts { background-position:7.5% 50%; }
.three-hearts { background-position:15% 50%; }
.four-hearts { background-position:22.5% 50%; }
.five-hearts { background-position:30% 50%; }
.six-hearts { background-position:37.5% 50%; }
.seven-hearts { background-position:45% 50%; }
.eight-hearts { background-position:52.5% 50%; }
.nine-hearts { background-position:60% 50%; }
.ten-hearts { background-position:67.5% 50%; }
.jack-hearts { background-position:75% 50%; }
.queen-hearts { background-position:82.5% 50%; }
.king-hearts { background-position:90% 50%; }
/* diamonds */ 
.ace-diamonds { background-position:0% 75%; }
.two-diamonds { background-position:7.5% 75%; }
.three-diamonds { background-position:15% 75%; }
.four-diamonds { background-position:22.5% 75%; }
.five-diamonds { background-position:30% 75%; }
.six-diamonds { background-position:37.5% 75%; }
.seven-diamonds { background-position:45% 75%; }
.eight-diamonds { background-position:52.5% 75%; }
.nine-diamonds { background-position:60% 75%; }
.ten-diamonds { background-position:67.5% 75%; }
.jack-diamonds { background-position:75% 75%; }
.queen-diamonds { background-position:82.5% 75%; }
.king-diamonds { background-position:90% 75%; }

That’s a class for each card or 52 for those following along at home. Bloat city.

So kudos to Microsoft for letting developers be flexible in at least one area. Now if all the other CSS properties were as flawless as this we would be in business.